Primary Factors. Inquiring into the roots of actions, whether the intentions for them arose from one of the skillful roots of non-greed, non-aversion or non-delusion, or from one of the unskillful roots of greed, aversion or delusion.
Inquiring into the effects on the psyche, or mental well-being, of actions: whether they render the mind clear, calm and healthy; whether they promote or inhibit the quality of the mind; whether they encourage the arising of skillful conditions and the decrease of unskillful conditions, or vice versa. Secondary Factors. Considering whether one's actions are censurable to oneself or not conscience. Considering the quality of one's actions in terms of wise teachings. Considering the results of those actions:. It is possible to classify these standards in a different way, if we first clarify two points.
Firstly, looking at actions either in terms of their roots, or as skillful and unskillful in themselves, are essentially the same thing. Secondly, in regard to approval or censure by the wise, we can say that such wise opinions are generally preserved in religions, conventions and laws. Even though these conventions are not always wise, and thus any practice which conflicts with them is not necessarily unskillful, still it can be said that such cases are the exception rather than the rule. We are now ready to summarize our standards for good and evil, or good and bad kamma, both strictly according to the law of kamma and also in relation to Social Preference, both on an intrinsically moral level and on a socially prescribed one.
In terms of direct benefit or harm: are these actions in themselves beneficial? Do they contribute to the quality of life? Do they cause kusala and akusala conditions to increase or wane?
In terms of beneficial or harmful consequences: are the effects of these actions harmful or beneficial to oneself? In terms of benefit or harm to society: are they harmful to others, or helpful to them? In terms of conscience, the natural human reflexive capacity: will those actions be censurable to oneself or not? In terms of social standards: what is the position of actions in relation to those religious conventions, traditions, social institutions and laws which are based on wise reflection as opposed to those which are simply superstitious or mistaken beliefs?
Prior to addressing the question of the results of kamma in the next chapter, it would be pertinent to consider some of the points described above in the light of the Pali Canon.
They are the three roots of skillfulness -- non-greed, non-aversion and non-delusion; feelings, perceptions, proliferations and consciousness which contain those roots of skillfulness; bodily kamma, verbal kamma and mental kamma which have those roots as their base: these are skillful conditions. They are the three roots of unskillfulness -- greed, aversion and delusion -- and all the defilements which arise from them; feelings, perceptions, proliferations and consciousness which contain those roots of unskillfulness; bodily kamma, verbal kamma and mental kamma which have those roots of unskillfulness as a foundation: these are unskillful conditions.
These are such things as lions, tigers, panthers, bears, leopards, wolves They are bad bodily actions, bad verbal actions, bad mental actions; the hindrances of sensual desire, ill will, sloth and torpor, restlessness and doubt; greed, aversion and delusion; anger, vengeance, spite, arrogance, jealousy, meanness, deception, boastfulness, stubbornness, contention, pride, scornfulness, delusion, heedlessness; the defilements, the bad habits; the confusion; the lust; the agitation; all thoughts that are unskillful: these are the 'covert dangers.
They are called dangers in that they overwhelm, in that they cause decline, in that they are a shelter. Because those dangers suppress, constrict, overcome, oppress, harass and crush Because those dangers bring about the decline of skillful conditions Because base, unskillful conditions are born from those things and take shelter within them, just as an animal which lives in a hole takes shelter in a hole, a water animal takes shelter in water, or a tree-dwelling animal takes shelter in trees..
These three things arise in the world not for welfare or benefit, but for woe, for discomfort. What are those three? They are greed, aversion and delusion What are the three? They are the greed-root, the aversion-root and the delusion-root of unskillfulness One in the power of greed, sunk in greed, whose mind is distorted by greed, causes trouble for others by striking them, imprisoning them, crushing them, decrying them, and banishing them, thinking, 'I am powerful, I am mighty.
These many kinds of coarse, unskillful conditions, arising from greed, having greed as their cause, having greed as their source, having greed as condition, persecute the evil doer. One in the power of hatred These many kinds of coarse, unskillful conditions persecute the evil doer One in the power of delusion causes trouble for others These many kinds of unskillful conditions persecute the evil doer in this way.
At death, at the breaking up of the body, he can expect a woeful bourn, just like a tree which is completely entwined with a banyan creeper comes to ruin, to destruction, to decline, to dissolution There are these three roots of skillfulness.
They are the non-greed root, the non-aversion root and the non-delusion root There are three root causes of kamma. They are greed There are these three root causes of kamma. They are non-greed When you know for yourselves that these things are unskillful, these things are harmful, these things are censured by the wise, these things, if acted upon, will bring about what is neither beneficial nor conducive to welfare, but will cause suffering, then you should abandon them. Do greed Answer: Non-benefit, Venerable Sir. This is for their non-benefit and non-welfare for a long time to come.
Answer: That is true, Venerable Sir. Answer: They are unskillful, Venerable Sir. Answer: Harmful, Venerable Sir. Answer: Censured by the wise, Venerable Sir. What do you think? Answer: When put into practice, these things bring about harm and suffering, this is our view on this matter. It is a series of questions and answers relating to the nature of good and evil, from which it can be seen that Venerable Ananda makes use of all the standards mentioned above. King: Venerable Sir, when foolish, unintelligent people, not carefully considering, speak in praise or blame of others, I do not take their words seriously.
As for pundits, the wise and astute, who carefully consider before praising or criticizing, I give weight to their words. Venerable Ananda, which kinds of bodily actions, verbal actions and mental actions would, on reflection, be censured by wise ascetics and Brahmins? Ananda: They are those actions of body King: What are those actions of body Ananda: Those actions of body Following that, Venerable Ananda answered the King's questions about skillful conditions in the same way, summarizing with:.
Having abandoned desire Bad kamma follows and burns the evil doer just like hot coals buried in ash. For those bad actions through body, speech and mind, which are discouraged by me, the following consequences can be expected: one is blameworthy to oneself; the wise, on careful consideration, find one censurable; a bad reputation spreads; one dies confused; and at death, on the breaking up of the body, one goes to the woeful states, the nether realms, hell For those good actions through body, speech and mind recommended by me, the following rewards can be expected: one is not blameworthy to oneself; the wise, after careful consideration, find one praiseworthy; a good reputation spreads; one dies unconfused; and at death, on the breaking up of the body, one attains to a pleasant realm, to heaven Unskillful conditions can be abandoned.
If it were impossible to abandon unskillful conditions, I would not tell you to do so Moreover, if the abandoning of those unskillful conditions was not conducive to welfare, but to suffering, I would not say, 'Monks, abandon unskillful conditions,' but because the abandoning of these unskillful conditions is conducive to benefit and happiness, so I say, 'Monks, abandon unskillful conditions.
Skillful conditions can be cultivated. If it were impossible to cultivate skillful conditions, I would not tell you to do so Moreover, if the cultivation of those skillful conditions was not conducive to welfare, but to suffering, I would not tell you to cultivate skillful conditions, but because the cultivation of skillful conditions is conducive to welfare and to happiness, thus do I say, 'Monks, cultivate skillful conditions.
Herein, a monk in this Dhamma-Vinaya incurs transgressions through the body. His wise companions in the Dhamma, having considered the matter, say to him: 'Venerable Friend, you have incurred these offenses. It would be well if you were to abandon this wrong bodily behavior and cultivate good bodily behavior.
This is a condition which should be abandoned by body, not by speech. Herein, a monk in this Dhamma-Vinaya incurs some transgressions through speech. His wise companions in the Dhamma, having considered the matter, say to him: 'Venerable Friend, you have incurred these offenses of speech.
It would be well if you were to relinquish this wrong speech and cultivate good speech. This is a condition which should be abandoned by speech, not by body. These things should be abandoned neither by the body or speech, but should be clearly understood with wisdom and then abandoned.
Buddhism is often seen as the acceptable face of religion, lacking a as it is without every botched homework being a sign of lurking inner evil. Explore common concepts of evil as a characteristic or a force compared to Buddhist teachings. Examine further how karma relates to good and.
These first five qualities are called the Five Hindrances nivarana , so named because they are obstacles to the successful development of meditation or a clear mind. Examples of such conventions are social codes of dress: before entering a Buddhist temple in Thailand, for example, it is appropriate to remove shoes and hat, whereas to enter a Christian church it is often required to wear both.
Hiri: sense of shame; ottappa: fear of wrong doing. Source : www.
By contrast, Reformed epistemology offers a metaphysical and epistemological account of warrant according to which belief in God can be warranted even if it is not supported by evidence and it offers an account of properly basic belief according to which basic belief in God is on an epistemic par with our ordinary basic beliefs about the world and other minds which seem to be paradigmatically rational. Indeed, they regard it as a mistake to conceive of any lasting unity behind the elements that constitute an individual. This aspect of Buddhism has led some commentators to say that it is more like a philosophy of life than a religion. At the end of this section, two observations are also worth noting about epistemic disagreements. In terms of the later difference, philosophers sometimes distinguish between what is attributed to some thing and the mode in which some state such as knowledge is realized.
Payutto The problem of good and evil Because kamma is directly concerned with good and evil, any discussion of kamma must also include a discussion of good and evil. Not a member? Sign up for My OBO. Already a member? Publications Pages Publications Pages.